Science World Spring 2012 Promo : Page 3

JUPITER: About 670,900 kilometers (416,900 miles) separate Jupiter and Europa, one of its moons. CROSS-SECTION OF EUROPA’S ICY COVERING: This illustration shows a slice of part of Jupiter’s moon Europa. It reveals a lake trapped in its icy crust. EUROPA’S ICY COVERING: Dark lines called lineae crisscross Europa. They formed when water welled up and froze in cracks in the moon’s icy crust. TO THE CORE Europa is slightly smaller than Earth’s moon. New research suggests that heat from Europa’s core has caused subsurface lakes to form in the moon’s icy crust. The crust floats above a vast ocean that covers the moon. CORE: Center composed of melted iron and sulphur ICE CRUST: Estimated to be 10 to 30 kilometers (6.2 to 18.6 miles) thick EUROPA’S HIDDEN LAKES: Large lakes may lie within Europa’s icy covering. The clue to their existence is the fractured crust created by plumes of rising warm water. OCEAN: Up to 160 km (100 mi) deep; rich in chemicals and salts MANTLE: Layer of rocks made of silicates 1610 DISCOVERY: Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei first observed the four largest moons of Jupiter: Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa ( left to right ). Scientists have confirmed that Jupiter has 64 moons. DIAGRAM: ©GRAPHIC NEWS EUROPA’S OCEAN: Underneath Europa’s icy covering is an ocean. SCIENCE WORLD 3

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